Tuesday, March 22, 2011

Delicious Coffee Ideas

Ok so how many of you love a cup of coffee? I know I do! Below you can see 6 of the best recipes to enjoy your coffee a different way. We hope you enjoy it.

Irish Coffee
1 teaspoon of sugar
1 jigger of Bushmills Irish Whiskey
2/3 cup of coffee or flavoured Irish Creme coffee

1/4 cup of heavy cream, lightly whipped
Preheat the glass with hot water. Dump the water out and add the hot coffee with the teaspoon of sugar and stir. Add the jigger of whiskey, and top with the whipping cream. Dark coffee's are best for this recipe.

Spiced French Coffee
1 teaspoon fresh, grated orange peel
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
5 whole cloves
Regular amount of your usual coffee or try Swiss Chocolate Orange flavored coffee

Add the above ingredients together and brew as normal. Place a slice of orange at the bottom or your cup. Pour in coffee and add sugar and cream to taste. Top with whipping cream and sprinkle with a dash of nutmeg and cinnamon if so desired.
Mint Chocolate Coffee

1 ounce of chocolate mint liqueur
Dash of shaved chocolate
Whipping cream (optional)
Regular coffee or try Dutch Chocolate Decaf

flavoured coffee
Brew your regular coffee, add the 1 ounce of liqueur into your cup. Add some whipping cream if desired and sprinkle with shaved chocolate.

Coffee Flavoured Milkshakes

1 pint of coffee ice cream
2 teaspoons finely ground coffee
1/2 cup light rum (optional)
4 to 6 scoops vanilla ice cream
Instant coffee powder

Spoon coffee ice cream into blender. Add rum and finely ground coffee. Blend on high until creamy smooth. Pour into tall glasses, adding a scoop of the vanilla ice cream to each glass. Sprinkle lightly with instant coffee powder.
Frosty Mocha Coffees

1 cup of freshly brewed coffee
1 pint of vanilla ice cream, softenend
6 tablespoons of chocolate syrup
1 cup prepared cold coffee

Blend hot coffee and chocolate syrup in blender. Blend until smooth. Cool the mixture to room temperature. Pour the mixture into a medium bowl. Add the softened ice cream and cold coffee. With a rotary beater, beat until smooth. Spoon into tall glasses and serve immediately.
Egg Nogg Coffee

1 cup of coffee or try Pumpkin Spice flavoured coffee

1 egg yoke
1/2 cup of cream
Dash of nutmeg
Beat the suger and egg yoke together. Place cream in a saucepan and heat over low setting, do not burn. Wisk the egg mixture into the warmed cream, heat until hot. Add coffee to mugs and top with the cream mixture. Garnish the coffee with nutmeg.

I Love Coffee!: Over 100 Easy and Delicious Coffee Drinks Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying, Fifth Edition
Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World
The Book of Coffee (Book Of...)

Role of SEO and Website on Internet Money

U have a web site with good in looks and well developed
ore U have not yet own a web site with your own domain name.

You will find a good many sites are existing on web, If you will try to know what their source of income is, you will know that most of their revenue come from selling the produce of producers in n number of areas.

When you will make a research through search result from search engines , you will be able to know that some the products are info products and some of them are domestic consumable , some times also they are heavy goods like cars,motors and two wheelers.

When you find that the sellers of the goods pays some commission to sale their products, you will try to find ways and means to market their product and make some money through net.

You will post in blogs and forums , You will resort to email marketing. Some of you will certainly be keeping interest to own a web site at a price affordable to you , and to sale your products from your own web site.

If you will get one web site and optimise the pages for search engines and host the pages, in due course certainly you will be able to make good amount of money from net.

google adsense , click bank and commission junction are some of the sites which will guide you how to make money through your web sites. Clear informations are avaialble on the respective sites on what they do and what you will have to do to benifit from them.

http://www.webhosting-indya.com is a site which provides all solutions to make money from net.

You will knows the tips and tricks here , on how to optimise your pages to get better postion in search results of search engines.

You will also get reference of some sites which will provide information on income opportunities existing on the net.

You will also get web hosting at cheapest prices for better web hosting experience.

The Art of SEO: Mastering Search Engine Optimization (Theory in Practice)
Search Engine Optimization: Do It Yourself - Kindle Bestseller (The Definitive Do It Yourself Guide to SEO)
Ranking Number One: 50 Essential SEO Tips To Boost Your Search Engine Results 

Monday, March 21, 2011

Basic Techniques to Generate Traffic from Search Engines

Traffic -- And lots of it! It is the dream of every netrepreneur. After all, without steady stream of visitors -- or should I say "potential customers" to your web site, how will you earn your e-fortune?

The first place most e-business start-ups go when they need a quick traffic fix is the search engines. And rightfully so! After all, a top ranking position in one of the major search engines is an effective way to increase the traffic to your web site without spending your hard-earned advertising dollars!

Statistics have repeatedly shown that anywhere from 20% to 80% of your visitors will find your web site via a search engine. However, you should also know that statistics show that most web surfers never search beyond the top 30 results they receive. With that in mind, it is clear that a top position a top position should be the goal of any savvy site owner.

But top spots are no longer achieved by crossing your fingers and blindly submitting your web site to 900+ search engines and directories using a free submission service. Competition for top spots is getting fierce, so it is important that you learn the "right" techniques if you want to ensure that your web site is well ranked... and it is very important that you do so while this great advertising medium is still FREE!

As I said before; for high traffic generation to your website, it is very important that your web site ranks in top spots in search engines. You may ask "What are the search engine looking for when they rank my web site?" Well, although each search engine uses different set of algorithms to rank web sites, but generally speaking, however, here are some of the main factors currently being considered by the search engines.

1. Link Popularity
Alta Vista, Excite, Lycos, and the web pages search promotion of Yahoo! use a ranking system that involves measuring and ranking the number of links that are directed towards a particular web site. This is an extremely powerful traffic generation tools because:

Reason # 1
Building a well thought-out linking strategy is a powerful way to attract large volumes of high targeted traffic! By putting your web site on every major web "intersection" where your target market meets, you will ensure that your web site receives a steady flow of qualified potential customers.

Reason # 2
Links are equivalent to recommendations! They established credibility even before the visitor reaches your web site, dramatically increasing the likelihood that they will buy.

Think about it... David arrives at his favorite web site and notices that they have posted a link to your web site. He knows and trusts his favorite web site and therefore assumes that, because they have a linked to you, your business must be credible too. He clicks through the link to your web site and is immediately open to offers you present him with. Why? Because your credibility was established before he even arrived at your homepage!

Reason # 3
Since many search engines now factor link popularity into their ranking decisions, your linking strategies are all that much more important! If you want to be ranked as high as possible in search engines, you now need a factor in your link popularity – and, as you already know, earnings a top spot in the major search engines is key to increasing your web site traffic.

Obviously, developing a linking strategy that generates a high volume of targeted traffic to your web site is not an overnight process. It will take you anywhere from two weeks to six months to secure quality links you need. However, I promise you that it is worth the effort! Once you have done the initial footwork, the links that are established will remain on these web sites for years to come. Your perseverance will pay big dividends in the form of a continuous flow of targeted traffic generation.

2. Your Domain Name
A domain name plays a vital role in traffic generation to any web site. Domain names rich in keywords will rank higher in search engines because search engines love URL's that are saturated with keywords! Brainstorm keywords and key phrases for your web site and then use them to create a catchy URL... or load the domain name with your best keywords to get ranked higher in the search engines.

3. Key Word Density
Keywords definitely refer to the number of times your keyword appears throughout your site. Your keyword density is a factor that is heavily weighted by search engines, so it's very important to make strategic use of your keywords.

So, these are the golden facts and tactics through which you can drive high traffic to your web site. I should also mention that you do not expect to enter a couple of your top keywords into the search engines and instantly start making money through your web site--- that is very rare. But yes, you can really make high traffic through search engines without crossing the line into "keyword stuffing" and with a little time. 

Facebook: $750 Mil in Hand Worth More than $2Bil in Sky

It came up conversationally, but I believe I'm the only person at my company to have firsthand experience as a user of Facebook.com. It was kind of funny to have all these online advertising professionals asking me all about the website everybody used in college. Didn't they get the memo? I'm new. I should be asking the questions around here. The subject of Facebook.com is an interesting one that's worth a closer look.

Without question 2005 was the year of MySpace. Before Rupert Murdoch's $580 million social networking venture took the interactive world by storm, it's difficult to believe that even the most optimistic of the billionaire's lackeys would have predicted that new acquisition would more than quadruple its reach within a matter of months. With 23.5 billion page views by February, MySpace became the second most trafficked site on the Internet.

Murdoch's success naturally generated buying interest in anything deemed online social networking. One proposed deal in March 2006, was Viacom's unsuccessful $750 million bid for Facebook.com, the phenomenon started by wunderkind Mark Zuckerberg. After Facebook.com declined the offer, its founders pegged Facebook.com's worth at two billion dollars. Perhaps the brilliant sparks from MySpace's success has blinded Facebook.com to the flipside reality of Friendster's paradise lost. There's a real chance Facebook won't see an offer this generous again.

Facebook.com is essentially an online medium of communication for college students and high schoolers. For its valued reach Zuckerberg and his crew of Harvard dropouts (taking their cue from Bill Gates, no doubt) must be looking for Google-sized compensation, but the two billion dollar figure is arbitrary and difficult to justify. Perhaps Facebook is emboldened by their own wise decision in not selling to Yahoo for $15 million in 2004.

Zuckerberg was likely trying to establish a market value for his creation, not an unwise move on the face of things. However, Viacom's offer was not by any stretch of the imagination pocket change and the number of entities that can and will double the bid Facebook already got is finite.

Facebook's traffic numbers, as referenced on Alexa.com, during the last three months are not encouraging; that is, if the goal is to fish for more and greater buyout bids. The numbers actually have trended downward since March, anathema for enticing hyper bidding growth. These diminishing statistics can be at least partially attributed to the cyclical nature of the school year since Facebook, after all, is geared towards the college student. It doesn't matter how great the product is, it won't keep students from doing their own thing during summer vacation and this yearly dip is potentially damaging.

Seeing as how fast online fads can expand and contract in social networking as we've seen in its short time span, what if the numbers don't come back? What if something new pops up in two months that steals Facebook's thunder? (And, again, MySpace's success serves as good reason why this thunder is worth stealing.)

Facebook.com's success has also been marred with some controversy that could taint its popularity with students. At Syracuse University a flap over freedom of expression ensued when a Facebook.com group went overboard in critiquing a student teacher and ended up with expulsions from the class and social suspension before three students transferred. After Penn State's football team beat Ohio State this year students rushed the field and made a ruckus. Overwhelmed police made only two arrests that day, but later in the week they logged onto Facebook.com and, like Canadian Mounties who always get their man, got plenty of names and faces and photos from the info posted by students about their on-field shenanigans. Kids talk and these stories spread like wildfire, which may affect Facebook.com negatively – they can't control misuse of their product and the negative repercussions that come from it.

The future is promising for the social networking business space and I don't believe Facebook.com is doomed. Still, given the nature of short-lived and over-hyped dotcoms, Facebook may have reached their growth climax this school year, with possibility for expansion and success only contingent on acquisition. Time may not be on their side because as the pages of the calendar turn there will doubtlessly be new fads and trends that will threaten to make something else the "Next Big Thing" at Facebook.com's expense. The clock is ticking.

Friday, March 18, 2011

Affiliate Marketing, 6 tips for online marketing

So, you are thinking about marketing on line, good idea.
The easiest and most profitable way to start is Affiliate Programs.
If you are willing to put a good bit of easy work into affiliate
programs you can make a comfortable living. You will not need a
college degree or anything like that. All you need is a willing
mind. The main road to success are focused dedication and a lot of
1. Affiliate programs may be the easiest online business to start
running. although it doesn't't hurt to do some study so that you can
learn from other people's mistakes rather than go through them
yourself. In addition, you are likely to pick up ideas that you
wouldn't have come up with yourself. There are numerous training
products with great strategies to adopt. One of the best ways to do
this is look at what people who have used the courses are saying in
some of the popular Internet marketing forums.

2. These programs are a great way to get started in an online
business. There are some 'Super Affiliates' who are making fabulous
incomes from these programs. Affiliate programs allow you to sell
another company's service or product and make a commission on every
sale or lead. You don't even need to build a web site or handle the
transaction. Your job is to drive traffic to your affiliate link.

3. An affiliate link is a special URL code that will identify
customers coming to the company's site from your advertising. It will
be the web site address with a code attached to the end. Some programs also have tiers. That means if someone who is interested in selling the product comes through your link and signs up you will also get a small percentage of their earnings.

4. To choose a program You should research the popularity of some of
your interests. Try to determine if people are buying that product or
service online. There are many sources for finding that information including free ones, such as the Overture keyword tool.
When you have found an area that is popular then type the subject
along with 'affiliate program' into your search engine and see which
programs have services or products for that area. You can also use an
affiliate program directory.

5. After founding a program that looks good you should check the
terms of the program. Make sure that pay outs are not based on a high
commission earning or you may never see your money. Also try to
choose programs with high commission rates. Often you will find
ebooks and downloadable software has the highest rates as there is no
physical product to make or ship. If you are satisfied with the terms
then you need to sign up.

6. The reason affiliate programs are so great for beginners is that
you only need to focus on marketing. Many affiliate programs have
information on how to market and give you tools such as banners,
product feeds and more. You can also look for other information on
marketing including writing articles, creating pay-per-click
campaigns, commenting in online forums etc. As you gain experience
marketing you will make adjustments to your selling and start
creating a wonderful income!

Why a large number of would-be online marketers are either
unsuccessful or only partially successful is because they lack focus.
They jump from one strategy to the next without mastering any. In
affiliate marketing, the key to success is planning and focus. Take
one strategy and concentrate on it for a set period of time, maybe a
month. If it isn't't returning enough then look for an alternative and spend time developing it. If it is working, then look at ways of
making it even better. Most people want to 'get rich quick' on the
Internet and fail. To make real riches you need to have a strategy,
look to the longer terms and stay focused.

Racing and the Street- A Deadly Combination

Street Racing seems like the most affordable way to get the automotive adrenaline rush all us enthusiasts crave. What member of America's youth doesnt get off to hot girls, fast cars, and free rides? What seems like fun and games to some, hoewever, is serious business to others. Not only is racing on public streets illegal in all 50 states, it is the most dangerous and selfish act the youth of today is getting involved in.

Taking off after WWII when the youth returning from war had extra money and a need for speed to go with their new mechanical know-how, street racing quickly evolved into one of America's top killers in today's society. Inspired and revived by the Fast and the Furious movies, street racing has contributed to a frightening level of fatal crashes. Fatal crashes related to street racing has increased by more than 85% every year for the past 6 years. From 1999 to 2000, San Diego, CA has seen an increase of 97% of fatal crashes caused by street racing. Still sound like fun and games?

In the state of Florida, pedestrian injuries related to street racing has increased by 222% from 1999 to 2001. The leading cause of death for people ages 16-20 is automobile accidents. National averages show that for every 1000 street racers, there are 49 innocent by-standers who are injured or killed. So why do kids street race?

In the state of Florida, pedestrian injuries related to street racing has increased by 222% from 1999 to 2001. The leading cause of death for people ages 16-20 is automobile accidents. National averages show that for every 1000 street racers, there are 49 innocent by-standers who are injured or killed. So why do kids street race?

The average consequences for street racing are:

You will be arrested and have your car impounded for 30 days.
You will be arrested and have your car (or your parent's car!) permanently confiscated.
You can be imprisoned for up to three months and fined up to $1,000.
Your driver's license will be revoked.
Your car insurance rates will increase or you can be cancelled.

So America's youth still thinks drag racing is a more simple way to get the automotive high? All you need to race on an NHRA track is:

Valid driver's license
Valid vehicle registration and insurance
DOT-approved street legal tires
Seat belts

You need this stuff to ride on the street too! So the hard-ass, ignorant street racers out there need to save up 20 bucks and enjoy the legal and exciting atmosphere at their local drag strip. 

Thursday, March 17, 2011

How To Develop A Secure Retirement Income

One of the rules of life is that, sooner or later, everyone has to stop working and retire. For some, this is a golden opportunity to enjoy life and do things they never got the chance to do while they were busy with working and raising a family. For others, however, retirement can be a very scary prospect, with no money coming in and yet some of the biggest expenses still needing to be taken care of. Even though work stops, the truth is that life (and your bills) doesn't. Here are some ways to plan ahead and develop a secure source of income for when you retire.

The most important factor in planning out your retirement income is to plan ahead- the sooner you start to plan, the better. As soon as you reach that stage of life where you are receiving a secure income, you should begin to put money aside in order to draw off of when you retire. You can do this by diversifying your investments- small contributions to several areas will add up when you retire to provide you with a comfortable living- if you are very wise and frugal you may find that your retirement income is actually more than your regular working income was!

The best places to put this money are in areas where they will be able to accrue interest, especially of the compound variety. Some safe investments include mutual funds and saving bonds, in which an investor agrees to leave the money aside for a stated amount of time in order to earn the interest that will often be guaranteed. In some areas, it is also possible to invest in Registered Retirement Savings Plans (RRSPs) which will not only accrue interest until the time you retire, they are also usually tax deductible in the present.

You should also look for a job in which a regular contribution is made by both the company and by yourself to a pension plan. Ask your employer if it is possible to have some money deducted from each paycheck and deposited to a specific pension plan- many employers will meet the contributions made by the employee.

The most important thing when you are planning out your retirement income is to make sure that the money you invest for that purpose remains there. Many people lose their retirement nest egg in emergencies or even investing in opportunities that seem iron clad, but aren't. When you make investments towards your retirement, do not touch them. Remember that this money will be all you have at that time in your life, and if you lose it you are going to be in for some hard times, with no chance at recuperation. Any risks as far as investments go should be undertaken with money that you budget for that purpose, and not with any of the money that you plan on setting aside for retirement purposes.

Prudence and long-term planning are the watchwords when you begin to develop your secure retirement income. Make a plan and stick to it, and your golden years will be the best time of your life. 

Data Backup Service

Get your confidential data secured with the help of fully automated back up. Such automated back ups can eliminate the need for traditional tape based back up solutions. Data is stored in remote mirrored locations for resilience. If the back-up is too large to transfer over the available bandwidth, a snapshot is created and saved to a physical device, which is then uploaded to the back-up platform.

Data back up and Recovery!

The backup process starts after the installation and registration of backup software on the user's system. The backup process automatically detects important data files that are located anywhere on your hard disk and creates a backup set. You can fine-tune your backup set by adding and deselecting files and folders.

Back ups are quick and efficient, even over a dial up connection!
After the file selection is made you can initiate the backup process at any time. The initial backup will be the most time consuming since you must transfer all of your files to the data center. Online backup process has features such as Send-Once technology and file compression to perform this transfer as efficiently as possible. Easy backup utility unlike the conventional back up makes your backup process quick and very easy to perform. The Backup Solution software can store multiple versions of each file backed up during the last three months. This backup restore utility allows you to quickly restore a prior version of a file if an accident occurs overwriting a file template without changing the name.

Our scheduled, unattended backup process assures that backup occurs regularly and with certainty. Our backup software is smart enough to tune the backup process, it can happen automatically on a schedule, can be initiated by the users, or can be configured to occur in the background whenever a traveling computer is connected to the Internet.

What happens in case of emergency?
If data from your computer, laptop, PDA or mobile phone is ever lost, stolen or corrupted, Data back up and recovery ensures that there is always a current copy available for immediate retrieval. All you have to do is simply select the data you want to restore, be it a single document, digital photos, music files or your entire hard drive, then select OK and watch a copy instantly return to your computer. It's that easy. Such data back up services automatically archives 30 previous copies of your data, so if you ever get a virus, you can go back in time and retrieve a clean copy that was made before the attack. Try online to find out how you can get your data recovered on time. 

The Fourth Law (of Robotics)

The movie "I, Robot" is a muddled affair. It relies on shoddy pseudo-science and a general sense of unease that artificial (non-carbon based) intelligent life forms seem to provoke in us. But it goes no deeper than a comic book treatment of the important themes that it broaches. I, Robot is just another - and relatively inferior - entry is a long line of far better movies, such as "Blade Runner" and "Artificial Intelligence".

Sigmund Freud said that we have an uncanny reaction to the inanimate. This is probably because we know that – pretensions and layers of philosophizing aside – we are nothing but recursive, self aware, introspective, conscious machines. Special machines, no doubt, but machines all the same.

Consider the James bond movies. They constitute a decades-spanning gallery of human paranoia. Villains change: communists, neo-Nazis, media moguls. But one kind of villain is a fixture in this psychodrama, in this parade of human phobias: the machine. James Bond always finds himself confronted with hideous, vicious, malicious machines and automata.

It was precisely to counter this wave of unease, even terror, irrational but all-pervasive, that Isaac Asimov, the late Sci-fi writer (and scientist) invented the Three Laws of Robotics:

A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.
Many have noticed the lack of consistency and, therefore, the inapplicability of these laws when considered together.

First, they are not derived from any coherent worldview or background. To be properly implemented and to avoid their interpretation in a potentially dangerous manner, the robots in which they are embedded must be equipped with reasonably comprehensive models of the physical universe and of human society.

Without such contexts, these laws soon lead to intractable paradoxes (experienced as a nervous breakdown by one of Asimov's robots). Conflicts are ruinous in automata based on recursive functions (Turing machines), as all robots are. Godel pointed at one such self destructive paradox in the "Principia Mathematica", ostensibly a comprehensive and self consistent logical system. It was enough to discredit the whole magnificent edifice constructed by Russel and Whitehead over a decade.

Some argue against this and say that robots need not be automata in the classical, Church-Turing, sense. That they could act according to heuristic, probabilistic rules of decision making. There are many other types of functions (non-recursive) that can be incorporated in a robot, they remind us.

True, but then, how can one guarantee that the robot's behavior is fully predictable ? How can one be certain that robots will fully and always implement the three laws? Only recursive systems are predictable in principle, though, at times, their complexity makes it impossible.

This article deals with some commonsense, basic problems raised by the Laws. The next article in this series analyses the Laws from a few vantage points: philosophy, artificial intelligence and some systems theories.

An immediate question springs to mind: HOW will a robot identify a human being? Surely, in a future of perfect androids, constructed of organic materials, no superficial, outer scanning will suffice. Structure and composition will not be sufficient differentiating factors.

There are two ways to settle this very practical issue: one is to endow the robot with the ability to conduct a Converse Turing Test (to separate humans from other life forms) - the other is to somehow "barcode" all the robots by implanting some remotely readable signaling device inside them (such as a RFID - Radio Frequency ID chip). Both present additional difficulties.

The second solution will prevent the robot from positively identifying humans. He will be able identify with any certainty robots and only robots (or humans with such implants). This is ignoring, for discussion's sake, defects in manufacturing or loss of the implanted identification tags. And what if a robot were to get rid of its tag? Will this also be classified as a "defect in manufacturing"?

In any case, robots will be forced to make a binary choice. They will be compelled to classify one type of physical entities as robots – and all the others as "non-robots". Will non-robots include monkeys and parrots? Yes, unless the manufacturers equip the robots with digital or optical or molecular representations of the human figure (masculine and feminine) in varying positions (standing, sitting, lying down). Or unless all humans are somehow tagged from birth.

These are cumbersome and repulsive solutions and not very effective ones. No dictionary of human forms and positions is likely to be complete. There will always be the odd physical posture which the robot would find impossible to match to its library. A human disk thrower or swimmer may easily be classified as "non-human" by a robot - and so might amputated invalids.

What about administering a converse Turing Test?

This is even more seriously flawed. It is possible to design a test, which robots will apply to distinguish artificial life forms from humans. But it will have to be non-intrusive and not involve overt and prolonged communication. The alternative is a protracted teletype session, with the human concealed behind a curtain, after which the robot will issue its verdict: the respondent is a human or a robot. This is unthinkable.

Moreover, the application of such a test will "humanize" the robot in many important respects. Human identify other humans because they are human, too. This is called empathy. A robot will have to be somewhat human to recognize another human being, it takes one to know one, the saying (rightly) goes.

Let us assume that by some miraculous way the problem is overcome and robots unfailingly identify humans. The next question pertains to the notion of "injury" (still in the First Law). Is it limited only to physical injury (the elimination of the physical continuity of human tissues or of the normal functioning of the human body)?

Should "injury" in the First Law encompass the no less serious mental, verbal and social injuries (after all, they are all known to have physical side effects which are, at times, no less severe than direct physical "injuries")? Is an insult an "injury"? What about being grossly impolite, or psychologically abusive? Or offending religious sensitivities, being politically incorrect - are these injuries? The bulk of human (and, therefore, inhuman) actions actually offend one human being or another, have the potential to do so, or seem to be doing so.

Consider surgery, driving a car, or investing money in the stock exchange. These "innocuous" acts may end in a coma, an accident, or ruinous financial losses, respectively. Should a robot refuse to obey human instructions which may result in injury to the instruction-givers?

Consider a mountain climber – should a robot refuse to hand him his equipment lest he falls off a cliff in an unsuccessful bid to reach the peak? Should a robot refuse to obey human commands pertaining to the crossing of busy roads or to driving (dangerous) sports cars?

Which level of risk should trigger robotic refusal and even prophylactic intervention? At which stage of the interactive man-machine collaboration should it be activated? Should a robot refuse to fetch a ladder or a rope to someone who intends to commit suicide by hanging himself (that's an easy one)?

Should he ignore an instruction to push his master off a cliff (definitely), help him climb the cliff (less assuredly so), drive him to the cliff (maybe so), help him get into his car in order to drive him to the cliff... Where do the responsibility and obeisance bucks stop?

Whatever the answer, one thing is clear: such a robot must be equipped with more than a rudimentary sense of judgment, with the ability to appraise and analyse complex situations, to predict the future and to base his decisions on very fuzzy algorithms (no programmer can foresee all possible circumstances). To me, such a "robot" sounds much more dangerous (and humanoid) than any recursive automaton which does NOT include the famous Three Laws.

Moreover, what, exactly, constitutes "inaction"? How can we set apart inaction from failed action or, worse, from an action which failed by design, intentionally? If a human is in danger and the robot tries to save him and fails – how could we determine to what extent it exerted itself and did everything it could?

How much of the responsibility for a robot's inaction or partial action or failed action should be imputed to the manufacturer – and how much to the robot itself? When a robot decides finally to ignore its own programming – how are we to gain information regarding this momentous event? Outside appearances can hardly be expected to help us distinguish a rebellious robot from a lackadaisical one.

The situation gets much more complicated when we consider states of conflict.

Imagine that a robot is obliged to harm one human in order to prevent him from hurting another. The Laws are absolutely inadequate in this case. The robot should either establish an empirical hierarchy of injuries – or an empirical hierarchy of humans. Should we, as humans, rely on robots or on their manufacturers (however wise, moral and compassionate) to make this selection for us? Should we abide by their judgment which injury is the more serious and warrants an intervention?

A summary of the Asimov Laws would give us the following "truth table":

A robot must obey human commands except if:

Obeying them is likely to cause injury to a human, or
Obeying them will let a human be injured.
A robot must protect its own existence with three exceptions:

That such self-protection is injurious to a human;
That such self-protection entails inaction in the face of potential injury to a human;
That such self-protection results in robot insubordination (failing to obey human instructions).
Trying to create a truth table based on these conditions is the best way to demonstrate the problematic nature of Asimov's idealized yet highly impractical world.

Here is an exercise:

Imagine a situation (consider the example below or one you make up) and then create a truth table based on the above five conditions. In such a truth table, "T" would stand for "compliance" and "F" for non-compliance.


A radioactivity monitoring robot malfunctions. If it self-destructs, its human operator might be injured. If it does not, its malfunction will equally seriously injure a patient dependent on his performance.

One of the possible solutions is, of course, to introduce gradations, a probability calculus, or a utility calculus. As they are phrased by Asimov, the rules and conditions are of a threshold, yes or no, take it or leave it nature. But if robots were to be instructed to maximize overall utility, many borderline cases would be resolved.

Still, even the introduction of heuristics, probability, and utility does not help us resolve the dilemma in the example above. Life is about inventing new rules on the fly, as we go, and as we encounter new challenges in a kaleidoscopically metamorphosing world. Robots with rigid instruction sets are ill suited to cope with that.

Note - Godel's Theorems

The work of an important, though eccentric, Czech-Austrian mathematical logician, Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) dealt with the completeness and consistency of logical systems. A passing acquaintance with his two theorems would have saved the architect a lot of time.

Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem states that every consistent axiomatic logical system, sufficient to express arithmetic, contains true but unprovable ("not decidable") sentences. In certain cases (when the system is omega-consistent), both said sentences and their negation are unprovable. The system is consistent and true - but not "complete" because not all its sentences can be decided as true or false by either being proved or by being refuted.

The Second Incompleteness Theorem is even more earth-shattering. It says that no consistent formal logical system can prove its own consistency. The system may be complete - but then we are unable to show, using its axioms and inference laws, that it is consistent

In other words, a computational system can either be complete and inconsistent - or consistent and incomplete. By trying to construct a system both complete and consistent, a robotics engineer would run afoul of Gödel's theorem.

Note - Turing Machines

In 1936 an American (Alonzo Church) and a Briton (Alan M. Turing) published independently (as is often the case in science) the basics of a new branch in Mathematics (and logic): computability or recursive functions (later to be developed into Automata Theory).

The authors confined themselves to dealing with computations which involved "effective" or "mechanical" methods for finding results (which could also be expressed as solutions (values) to formulae). These methods were so called because they could, in principle, be performed by simple machines (or human-computers or human-calculators, to use Turing's unfortunate phrases). The emphasis was on finiteness: a finite number of instructions, a finite number of symbols in each instruction, a finite number of steps to the result. This is why these methods were usable by humans without the aid of an apparatus (with the exception of pencil and paper as memory aids). Moreover: no insight or ingenuity were allowed to "interfere" or to be part of the solution seeking process.

What Church and Turing did was to construct a set of all the functions whose values could be obtained by applying effective or mechanical calculation methods. Turing went further down Church's road and designed the "Turing Machine" – a machine which can calculate the values of all the functions whose values can be found using effective or mechanical methods. Thus, the program running the TM (=Turing Machine in the rest of this text) was really an effective or mechanical method. For the initiated readers: Church solved the decision-problem for propositional calculus and Turing proved that there is no solution to the decision problem relating to the predicate calculus. Put more simply, it is possible to "prove" the truth value (or the theorem status) of an expression in the propositional calculus – but not in the predicate calculus. Later it was shown that many functions (even in number theory itself) were not recursive, meaning that they could not be solved by a Turing Machine.

No one succeeded to prove that a function must be recursive in order to be effectively calculable. This is (as Post noted) a "working hypothesis" supported by overwhelming evidence. We don't know of any effectively calculable function which is not recursive, by designing new TMs from existing ones we can obtain new effectively calculable functions from existing ones and TM computability stars in every attempt to understand effective calculability (or these attempts are reducible or equivalent to TM computable functions).

The Turing Machine itself, though abstract, has many "real world" features. It is a blueprint for a computing device with one "ideal" exception: its unbounded memory (the tape is infinite). Despite its hardware appearance (a read/write head which scans a two-dimensional tape inscribed with ones and zeroes, etc.) – it is really a software application, in today's terminology. It carries out instructions, reads and writes, counts and so on. It is an automaton designed to implement an effective or mechanical method of solving functions (determining the truth value of propositions). If the transition from input to output is deterministic we have a classical automaton – if it is determined by a table of probabilities – we have a probabilistic automaton.

With time and hype, the limitations of TMs were forgotten. No one can say that the Mind is a TM because no one can prove that it is engaged in solving only recursive functions. We can say that TMs can do whatever digital computers are doing – but not that digital computers are TMs by definition. Maybe they are – maybe they are not. We do not know enough about them and about their future.

Moreover, the demand that recursive functions be computable by an UNAIDED human seems to restrict possible equivalents. Inasmuch as computers emulate human computation (Turing did believe so when he helped construct the ACE, at the time the fastest computer in the world) – they are TMs. Functions whose values are calculated by AIDED humans with the contribution of a computer are still recursive. It is when humans are aided by other kinds of instruments that we have a problem. If we use measuring devices to determine the values of a function it does not seem to conform to the definition of a recursive function. So, we can generalize and say that functions whose values are calculated by an AIDED human could be recursive, depending on the apparatus used and on the lack of ingenuity or insight (the latter being, anyhow, a weak, non-rigorous requirement which cannot be formalized). 

Writing For Fun And Profit

Every writer dreams of the day when they can profit from their writing. While income opportunities abound for writers, each method has drawbacks.

Newspaper and magazine reporters can make a good living but their subject matter is often closely regulated and directed. Corporate writing can be even more lucrative but even more tightly controlled. Freelance writing offers more freedom but is also more uncertain. Publishing books is even more uncertain. So what is a writer to do?

Forget all those old-school writing methods and focus on the Internet. Don't write for anyone but yourself. You really can profit from writing only about what interests you. Don't worry about the market or the editors. Write for yourself. Not only will it be more fun and rewarding for your soul but for your checking account as well.

I am going to share an easy (and cheap) 10-step formula that can help you start your own writing business today, but first I want to share one important fact.

This is not a get-rich-quick scheme. It will take some time to earn, perhaps as long as three months to begin turning a profit, but if you keep working at it you should see your income grow exponentially each month and you should be able to count on that income and know what you have to do to increase it. You will have total control over your income and that is very powerful.

1. Create a blog account at one of the free blogging sites available online (we used to use http://Blogger.com but there are many other good options). This will serve as your Internet base. It really is the cheapest and easiest way to get online today. Yes, you could create a free web site at one out of the many available, but blogs are more attractive to the search engines. Plus they offer you the ability to personalize it, but most of your energy will be spent on content which is the king of the Internet and the real reason you want an Internet presence.

2. Now sign up for a free ClickBank affiliate account which will give you immediate access to something to sell.

3. Sign up for a contextual or pay-per-click advertiser such as Google, Yahoo, Revenue Pilot, or SearchFeed and you'll start earning from visitors as well as customers.

4. Develop your blog. Make 10 your immediate goal then work your way up to 25, 50 and 100 and so on. Your entries can be your opinions, thoughts, or ramblings; poems or short stories; or articles.

5. Promote your blog through article marketing, link development and submitting your blog feed. I would suggest your primarily focus on article marketing as if offers the ability to not only develop links but also delivers traffic plus as a writer it is easy for you to create articles or use a selection of the material you've already created for your blog.

Yes, it really is that simple and while you can later grow by buying your own domain name (or names) and publishing your blog on your own site you do not need (and likely should avoid) investing money in expensive tools

Getting started on the web can be free (as you see above) or inexpensive if you concentrate on what you really need. The simple truth is that you don't need a lot of fancy, expensive tools and programs. In the long run a domain name is a good investment. A domain name will cost you between $5 and $10 a year depending on whether you go .com or .info (or one of the many other options available). You don't need to find a web host or create a site. Simply point the domain at your blog for now and continue with the development and promotion of your blog. The advantage of owning your own domain name is simply that later when you have the money, time, and knowledge to develop your web site that domain name will already exist and have filtered through the search engines. It also offers some marketing advantages that a free blog cannot.

At some point you may decide you want more flexibility and control than a free blog can offer and that is when you will want to run your own site. You can find a good web host for as little as $5 a month and shouldn't pay more than $20 a month for a reputable host that offers all the tools and utilities you might need for your current site--including blog software. Maybe down the line you'll need to upgrade but by then you'll know your income and your needs.

Really the only other regular expense that you might consider to make your Internet business complete would be a mailing list tool. You can do this for just $20 a month and it will be worth every penny for sales, customer service, and promotion. But this is not necessary to start out and you may decide that it isn't important to your efforts so you can skip it entirely.

Once you have your blog set up and monetized (by offering ClickBank products, advertising, and/or selling text links) then you are in a position to begin profiting from your writing. The way to profit it to increase your traffic so you need to get serious about your article marketing efforts because each article you distribute will generate immediate traffic and create back links for search engine optimization. Also you need to continue to grow your blog by adding fresh content regularly. This will create repeat visitors as well as bring the search engines back again and again. Simply publishing new articles and new blog entries each week will increase your traffic. The more articles and entries you create -- the more traffic you will generate.

Once you have found your rhythm with your existing blog you may well decide to branch out and create a second blog on a different or related topic. Now you should be able to work even faster because you are more experienced but likely more motivated as well because you can see just how rewarding it can be to write for fun and profit.

Essential Guitar Tabs For Beginner Guitarists

When we wonder what guitar tab we need to get to begin to make up our repertoire, we usually think only about songs we like. We know that our choice in music does not suck in the slightest but if we are going to be playing our guitar and singing for audiences we need to get used to the idea that our taste in music will not match what our listeners want to hear. We may even take a look at popular choices in songs and get the uncomfortable feeling that we might have to play songs that we do not like. One thing guitar players are famous for is standing on their principles and not compromising on what they are going to play. The other thing they are famous for is giving the audience what they want. So a mixture of these two attitudes is probably going to form in your psyche as you peruse your list of guitar tabs on the internet. While we are on the subject of lists of guitar tabs remember to pay a visit to your local music store or online merchant for ready-made collections of easy guitar tabs. You can find titles like "Popular Songs for Acoustic Guitar" or "CMT's 100 Greatest Songs of Country Music".

One fact that has emerged from field tests conducted by buskers, night club performers and covers bands is that you should look for your repertoire in the songs of years gone by. Oldies are goodies. Another thing you should think about is whether or not you are an audience participation kind of performer. If you are still wondering about it one second after the thought enters your head, then you probably aren't. So stay away from songs that require you to yell, "Everybody now!!" or "Just the girls this time!". Likewise if you play solo acoustic guitar and have a voice like Johnny Cash you might want to stay away from Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love". But do not walk away from songs you enjoy just because they might not seem immediately doable.Remember Jose Feliciano's "Light My Fire" and Eric Clapton's unplugged "Layla".

Of course what songs you choose is not going to matter much if you do not pay attention to how you sing and play the guitar. People pay to see performers who are better at something than they are. Which is where playing material that you like comes in. If you are playing a song that you consider to be a crowd pleaser but you personally think is a load of stomach chunks you give attention to the part the audience likes. You already know what that is. That is why you do not bellow, "Hello darkness my old friend" or shirk on the enthusiasm when you sing the line, "Welcome to the Hotel California".

Okay so what we get out of all this is first, there are songs that crowds of people like and second, you can sing and play these songs in a way that highlights your particular talents. Now for a basic list of songs that have been known to please a crowd or two over a period of years:
Wild World by Cat Stevens
Imagine - by John Lennon
Stairway To Heaven by Led Zeppelin
Catch the Wind by Donovan
Can't Help Falling In Love by Elvis Presley
Waterloo Sunset by The Kinks
Angie by the Rolling Stones
Everybody Hurts by REM
50 ways to leave your lover by Paul Simon
The 59th Street Bridge Song by Simon And Garfunkel
American Pie by Don Maclean
Both Sides Now by Joni Mitchell
California Dreamin' by The Mamas and Papas
Knockin' on Heaven's Door by Bob Dylan
Mrs Robinson by Simon And Garfunkel
You're so vain by Carly Simon
Blowin' In The Wind by Bob Dylan
Brown Eyed Girl by Van Morrison
I Walk The Line by Johnny Cash
Tears In Heaven by Eric Clapton
Gloria by Van Morrison (or Them)
Hotel California by The Eagles
Behind Blue Eyes by The Who
White Room by Cream
Sex And Candy by Marcy Playground
Californication by Red Hot Chili Peppers
What Its Like by Everlast
Alison by Elvis Costello
Life By The Drop by Stevie Ray Vaughn
Melissa by Allman Brothers
Dead Flowers by The Rolling Stones
Seagull by Bad Company
Mediterranean Sundance by Al DiMeola and Paco De Lucia
Classical Gas by Mason Williams

This list could be much, much longer, but you probably already see songs here that you would never play in a million years so all I can say now is I hope this guide to essential guitar tab has been helpful. 

Blogging On The Go, Aka Mobile Blogging

Blogging - What is it that attracts people so much?

Blogging is a type of website that lets you post in your comments, suggestions or read about anything being discussed in the blog that catches your interest. It is a way for people to interact, discuss or debate about a certain topic. Think of it as a small group of people debating or sharing comments about a particular topic.

One of the many reasons of why blogs are very popular is that it is subjective and not objective. If you read one blog, you will feel like you know the person who wrote it. It is a form of communication where it does not address itself to a wider audience but instead, it communicates on a person-to-person level. In this way, people are more comfortable posting comments in blogs than in other types of forums.

In a world where communication technology is steadily developing, blogging is one of the best ways of communicating with other people. Today, there are a lot of devices which you can use to create, maintain and update your blogs. One type is mobile blogging or moblogging.

Mobile blogging or moblogging is a type of blogging where it means that you can blog on the go from a portable mobile device like your cellular phone. One great reason to consider mobile blogging is if you want someone to be part of an event without being physically in the event.

One form of mobile blogging or moblogging is through communication devices such as Bluetooth or in your own palm top or pocket PC. There is not much difference between a traditional blog and mobile blog or moblog, the only difference is that in moblog, you can blog on the go.

Today, with the latest mobile phones getting more and more affordable, anyone can buy these devices. You can customize it, take pictures with it and you can also surf the internet with it. Mobile phones are also very useful for blogging. Aside from the fact that you can go online with mobile phones, you can also blog with it while you're on the go. With it, you can share stories, photos, videos on your blog

However, to create your own mobile blog, you should first determine if your mobile phone network provider can support online surfing through the internet. You should also determine what kind of phone supports for this kind of service.

Another benefit of moblogging is that if you get inspired to tell a story or you took some great pictures on your road trip and want to share them to the world, you won't have to wait until you get your hands on your computer and share your thoughts and pictures in the internet. With moblogging, you can blog anytime and anywhere.

To make it much easier for you, you should first make your blog website on your computer. Then, you should register your mobile phone number to activite mobile blogging services. And, you can now post in your comments anywhere you are with your mobile phone.

With mobile blogging, you can even benefit if you are buying a particular thing like a car. For example, you are now in a used car lot, you then can't decide on what car you want and would want to consult your friend about it.

You then take a picture of the cars you like and send them to your blogging website. You then call your friend and told him or her that you need his or her opinion about the cars. You tell them that the pictures are in your blogging site and ask them to take a look at it and tell them what they think.

Moblogging is a very convenient way to communicate with people and also update your blog site even without being physically in front of a desktop computer. 

Airplane Comfort Tips

Airplane Comfort Tips: Mental and Physical Comfort

The most important Airplane Comfort Tip that will make you feel very comfortable while flying is if you know that you have struck the best deal and managed to save a lot of money. Whether you are flying on a business trip or a pleasure trip, you can make it less expensive with little extra effort.

Here are some airplane comfort tips that will make your journey comfortable through some lesser-known methods of using air transport. Interestingly, the famous airfare price wars and the travel agents are not at the top of the list of our best airplane comfort tips.

When Should You Call Airlines?
The first airplane comfort tip suggests that you may get air tickets at a lower price if you call the airlines after 12 midnight and before 1:00 A.M. This is the best time because computers are updated at this time. Alternatively, you may make inquiries at other nearby airports. To your surprise, the difference in fare at the two airports can be several hundred dollars. You can also save some money if you book your ticket well in advance. On the other hand, booking at the last minute may also give you some extra benefit.

How to Counter Airplane Dryness
Now that you are mentally comfortable, because you feel that you have done your best to pay minimum for your airline ticket, here are some other airplane comfort tips to keep you physically comfortable while flying: 1.) You should take very light meals and get a good night's sleep before you start traveling. 2.) To counter the dryness caused by the atmosphere in the cabin, it will be better if you avoid drinking tea, coffee and alcohol. However, consume as much water and fresh fruit juices as you can. If you wear contact lenses, remove them if it is possible. Use moisturizer for the exposed skin and lip balm for the dry lips. If you have history of any kind of respiratory disease, it is advisable to consult your doctor before flying in the airplane.

Do Not Sit Idle for a Long Time
My next airplane comfort tip is that you should not remain sitting idle for the whole duration of the flight. It may cause obstructions in blood circulation resulting in muscle cramps, tiredness and worst of all, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Whenever you get a chance, try moving in the aisle. If you find it difficult, try to stretch your arms, neck, feet and legs.

Finding Your MAC Address On Wired And Wireless Network Cards

The Answer To The Media Access Control Question
Over the past few weeks I have received quite a few e-mails about Ethernet cards, both wired and wireless, and more specifically, about Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. I think the main reason I've received so many questions about Ethernet cards and MAC addresses is people trying to secure their home wireless networks and their desire to use MAC address filtering. This type of filtering in wireless networks can be configured to allow or deny specific computers to use or attach to the wireless network, based on the MAC address.

My first thought was to write an article just about MAC addresses and wireless Ethernet. After thinking about it I decided to expand on this and go over some specific information about Ethernet cards and communication.

Different Ways Of Finding Your MAC Address And More
There are several ways of finding your Ethernet and communications protocol information. Many Ethernet card manufacturer's have proprietary software that can reveal this information but they work differently depending on the manufacturer. So we will use the Windows 2000 and XP "ipconfig" utility since this is available in the majority of Windows Operating Systems.

First, go to "start" -> "run" and type "cmd" without the quotes. Then hit the enter key. At the command line type "ipconfig /all", again without the quotes. Actually, just typing ipconfig without the /all will work but will only provide you with abbreviated information regarding your network cards. An example of what you might see by typing the "ipconfig /all" command is below with each item commented in green lettering:

Fault Tolerant And Highly Availability Computer Systems
There are several ways of finding your Ethernet and communications protocol information. Many Ethernet card manufacturer's have proprietary software that can reveal this information but they work differently depending on the manufacturer. So we will use the Windows 2000 and XP "ipconfig" utility since this is available in the majority of Windows Operating Systems.

First, go to "start" -> "run" and type "cmd" without the quotes. Then hit the enter key. At the command line type "ipconfig /all", again without the quotes. Actually, just typing ipconfig without the /all will work but will only provide you with abbreviated information regarding your network cards. An example of what you might see by typing the "ipconfig /all" command is below:

OutPut Of The "Ipconfig /All" Command
Windows IP Configuration

Host Name . . . . . . . . . . . . : Home Computer
This is the name of your computer, typically defined during the windows installation. However, it can be changed after installation.

Primary Dns Suffix . . . . . . . : domain.com
If your computer participates in a network such as a Microsoft Windows domain this item may contain the name of the domain.

Node Type . . . . . . . . . . . . : Unknown
The Node Type may say Unknown, or peer-to-peer, or in some cases "hybrid". It is a setting that has to do with the Windows Internet Naming Services used in certain types of Windows domain networks.

IP Routing Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
This setting determines if Windows XP or 2000 will function as an IP router. If you have two or more network cards you can setup your system to act as a router, forwarding communications requests from one network to another. Windows 2000 can be configured to do this in a pretty straight forward fashion; Windows XP will need a registry modification.

WINS Proxy Enabled. . . . . . . . : No
WINS Proxy is another setting that is related to the "Node Type" we discussed earlier. It is normally not a required setting in a home or small office network, or newer types of Microsoft Windows domains.

Ethernet adapter Wireless Network Connection 2:
If you have multiple Ethernet (network) cards in your systems, as I do in this laptop, you will have multiple listings. This one happens to be the second Ethernet card, an internal wireless Ethernet card.

Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Broadcom 802.11b/g WLAN
This is the description of the Ethernet card, usually the Name / Manufacturer and type of Ethernet card. In this case, it is a Broadcom wireless Ethernet card built into my laptop.

Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-90-4B-F1-6E-4A
And here we have the MAC address. The MAC address is a 48 bit hexadecimal code and is suppose to be a totally unique address. It is 48 bits because each number or letter in hexadecimal represents 8 bits. Hexadecimal numbers range from 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E, F. There are 6 alpha-numeric codes hence 6*8=48(bits). The first 3 codes identify the manufacturer of the card and the remaining codes are used to create a unique number. Theoretically there should never be a card with same MAC address on a local network. However, there are a few exceptions. There are software tools that allow you to change this code. In fact, this is a step some hackers take to attack other systems on a local network. I say local network because MAC addresses are not routable between network segments. By spoofing this address, you can impersonate another machine on the local network. Traffic that was bound for the intended target can be redirected to the hacker's machine. This is the address you would also use to populate a MAC address, or physical address table when setting up your wireless access point to support MAC address filtering.

DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
DHCP, or the Dynamic Host Control Protocol, if enabled means your computers IP address is being provided by a DHCP server on you network. The DHCP server could be your wireless access point, cable/dsl router, cable modem, or a server on your network. Also, if a DHCP server is not enabled on your network, your computers Operating System will auto generate a random IP address within a certain predefined range. This means you could network a group of systems together without having to manually assign the IP settings.

IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . :
This parameter provides you with your current IP address. The address listed above is what is called a "private" address. There are certain classes of IP addresses that have been set aside for private use. This means for your internal, local, or private network at home or office. These addresses are not, or should not, be routable on the Internet. The Internet routes what are called "valid" IP addresses. Your cable/dsl router or cable modem has a valid IP address assigned to its "external" network interface. The external interface may be your phone line or cable TV cable.

Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . :
The Subnet Mask is a special number, or in some sense, filter, that breaks down your IP address, in this case private IP address, into certain groups. IP addresses and Subnet Masks can be a complicated matter and would take an entire article to go over.

Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
The default gateway, the IP addresses listed above, is the IP address of the device that will route your request, such as when you try to browse a website, to the Internet. It is a bit more complicated than that though as gateways or routers can route traffic to various different networks, even other private networks. At your home or small office, this gateway most likely is your cable/dsl modem or router.

DHCP Server . . . . . . . . . . . :
The DHCP server, remember we talked a little about this above, is the device that assigns your computer an IP address and other information. DHCP servers can assign all kinds of information such as; Default Gateway, Domain Name Servers (DNS), IP address, Subnet Mask, Time Server, and much more.

DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . :,
DNS Servers are internal or external servers that resolve Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDN), such as www.defendingthenet.com , to IP addresses. This is done because computers don't actually transmit your requests using the domain name, they use the IP address assigned to the FQDN. For most home or small office users, the primary DNS server is the IP address of your cable/dsl router. Your cable/dsl router than queries an external DNS server on the Internet to perform the actual resolution of the FQDN to IP address. The address is an internal private device on my network whereas the is an external public Internet DNS server and is present just in case my router has trouble performing the DNS resolution tasks.

Lease Obtained. . . . . . . . . . : Sunday, March 19, 2006 6:38:16 PM
This information tells you when your computer received its IP address and other information from a DHCP server. You will notice it says "Lease Obtained", that is because most DHCP servers only lease the IP address to you from a pool of available address. For instance, your pool may be through So your DHCP server has 50 IP addresses to choose from when assigning your computer its IP address.

Lease Expires . . . . . . . . . . : Wednesday, March 29, 2006 9:38:16 PM
When the IP address, assigned by the DHCP server, lease expires it will attempt to lease you the same or another IP address. This function can typically be changed on the DHCP server. For instance, on some fully functional DHCP servers, you can configure the Lease to never expire, or to expire within 1 day and so on.

Why Are MAC Addresses So Important And How Do They Work
To jump back to MAC address for just a bit. You may think that IP addresses are the most important thing when it comes to network communication. The reality is, MAC addresses are very important because without them computers would not be able to communicate over Ethernet networks. When a computer wants to speak with another computer on a local network, it will make a broadcast request, or ask a question, of who owns a particular IP address. For instance, your computer may say "Who is". Using the information above, my default gateway is and will answer "I am "00-90-4B-F1-6E-4A"". It sends back its MAC address. That MAC address then goes into what is called a Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table on your computer. You can see this information by going to the command prompt like you did above and typing "arp –a". You will get information like the following:

Internet Address Physical Address Type 00-12-17-5c-a2-27 dynamic 00-12-17-5c-a2-27 dynamic 00-0c-76-93-94-b2 dynamic 00-0e-2e-2e-15-61 dynamic

How A Hacker Can Use MAC Addresses In An Attack
You will notice the IP addresses and to the right of them the MAC addresses. Without this information, without the MAC address, you would not be reading this article right now. MAC addresses are not routable like IP addresses. They work on your local or private network. However, devices on the Internet perform the same tasks. Routers and switches maintain a list of their peer devices MAC address just like your computers and devices on your home or office network. I mentioned above that MAC addresses can be changed in order to redirect requests. For instance, if I were on your office network and you had an internal web server that took personal information as input, I could tell your computer to go to my laptop for the web site by broadcasting my MAC address tied to the real web servers IP address. I would do this when you computer asked "Who is the "Real Web Server"". I could setup a fake web server that looks just like the real thing, and start collecting information the real web server would normally collect. You can see how dangerous this can be.

There are several other easy ways you can find your MAC address but they can be a little confusing if you have more than one internal network card. Most external USB, or PCMCIA wired and wireless Ethernet cards have their MAC address printed on them. In cases where the wired or wireless network card are inside your computer, such as in laptops, the MAC address is sometimes printed on the bottom of the laptop. Even Desktop systems cards that are inserted in PCI slots have the MAC address printed on the Ethernet card.

Wednesday, March 16, 2011

Blog Design

It is great that the phrase blog floats around the net day in and day out, but what if you have no idea what a blog really is? Is this going to be helpful to your web site? No, not really. Here we will offer the skinny on the phrase blog, and you can decide for yourself if it may or may not be useful in your web pages. This way you will not be wasting your time on something you may not need, and the energy can be put to something you find more useful for yourself.

The term blog refers to weblog and it is in every fashion not a commercial or professional site. It is more of the personal nature, for comment or web site material. Generally the most recent information on a blog is kept at the top of the page, as blog's are dated log formats. Often they will have commentary of other sites or links directing you to them. Many times the site is dictated by group links and the log is updated frequently. The opinion is this is the very first weblog was back in 1993 it was the Mosaic. This was generally a compiling of links that where kind of disregarded. It took until 1998 for they're to be a mere handful of these so called blog's in existence. The blogger all knew each other and were swapping the links between each other.

By the year 1999 this term blog was starting to pick up pace, and as a result became a phenomenon. Once it became free to the public, it really took off and was a pastime that was enjoyed by many. Web logs were hand coded by developers on the web before the software became available. The use of html was the main coding for this program, and the web designers at the time were pretty much the only ones that knew it. Now that this new software is available to the general public, anyone is capable of making a blog. The moment blogger was released in 1999 it became a huge success with the public. Now people are not restricted on what kind of weblog they make, fast-forward to the year 2000 and people are making as many as 300-350 new blogs daily. There is actually a directory for all these blogs, and it contains as many as 5,500 entries. This is now a craze with over 750,000 blog users; this was not merely a passing trend obviously.

There are multiple tools these days for the people that are truly interested in blogging, this software can be found online and has become extremely popular. Check out the craze for yourself, and see what you think of it you may just enjoy it yourself.

The Many Uses Of Adjustable Swivel Bar Stools

When you think of bar stools, the first stools that might come to mind are wooden bar stools, kitchen bar stools, or adjustable swivel bar stools. Many of you out there thinking of buying bar stools usually only have a one tracked mind when you see a bar stool. A bar stools can be multifunctional and not for the way it was primarily designed. Here are some examples of using one type of bar stool for other purposes; this will often end up a better fit.

Artists using bar stools are built to seat painters, sculptors, and architects as they ply there trade. These types of bar stools are manufactured with adjustable height gauges to accommodate any size of artist. Unlike standard bar or counter stools, these stools are not designed to be fully sat in, but instead for a mixture of sitting and standing. They allow for a lot of changing between standing and leaning when into there work.

Now, imagine this a busy cook in their kitchen at home. Cooking often entails 1st mixing and preparing the ingredients, then baking or roasting. This takes a lot of standing up and sitting down, working at one place, then moving to get more ingredients or make sure something in the oven is cooking well. Wouldn't an adjustable swivel bar stool be a perfect match for this kind of action?

Now think of bar stools that are mainly manufactured for use at bar counters, breakfast bars, game halls, or high restaurant tables. This type of adjustable bar stool can also be used in your living room with more traditional pieces of furniture like designer chairs or a plush sofa and also don't take up to much room.

Finally, folding stools are extremely versatile. Made primarily to be lightweight aluminium for carrying to isolated places, they are used by painters looking to canvas pleasant pastoral scenes. They are also favourites among hikers, campers, and anglers, those people who would be constantly on the move in the open country side and like to rest, make camp or fish.

These stools have multiple uses, from parties in the garden, where transitory seating is needed, to being used in your hobby shop or garage. They can sit lower than other types of stools, so reaching things closer to the ground is more fitting.

Variations Of Software Programs

Consumers are enthralled by the software installed in electronic devices because these programs allow them to be more productive and provide them with a source of entertainment that is suitable for every member of the family. Some electronic devices will not work at all without the software installed, and others work better because the software programs have been added since the device was bought.

People are more familiar with the software programs that run their personal computers, but other digital devices are equipped with software. The operating system software is the controlling force behind all computer operations, This software allows the user to perform independent tasks using word processing software programs, or includes software that will allow the user to complete complex mathematical calculations using formulas in spreadsheet formats.

The operation of this type of software is independent of any other type of custom software that has been installed on the computer. Many computer users must install software that allows them to view videos and graphics. These software programs are easy to download but will require update to be installed from time to time to keep the software program running smoothly.

The software updates are written with scripting software that simplifies updates by creating screens that are presented in an easy to understand language that requires the user to click a few buttons and step back while the software does the rest of the installation on its own. Other software is embedded into the installation program that will notify the computer user that the installation is complete. In most cases, the computer software will require that the user restart the system for the changes to go into effect.

Some customized software programs will be created for businesses to track inventory or provide a certain service to a client or the public at large. Some computer operating systems work on the Windows platform and other software program are open source and can be edited by users who know the coding used in the software programs. These programs can be modified by each user and uploaded to the site where it was obtained so that other users can benefit from the changes that were made.

People prefer to use open source software because it is available for download through internet websites. The open source software is considered freeware and is the product of computer users who have a talent for creating programs that enhance productive tasks found in other software or the software could be scripts that make mundane tasks tolerable and easier to complete. Some programming artists create freeware to establish a web presence and build a business from software popularity.

The software programs installed on electronic devices allow people to connect to the internet and the user will have all the tools and storage space required to download files from a computer at work. The PDA devices contain software that will also allow users to check email and store it for future reference. Some personal digital assistants are equipped with software that allows people to access maps and obtain directions to a desired destination.